Wednesday, November 17, 2010

Atomic Model of Silver

After spending hours of a weekend to come up with my daugther's school project- to create a Atomic Model of Silver, I thought this would be helpful to lot more mothers out there looking for some ideas to create any such model

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Introduction:


Silver is a metallic chemical elements found by man in the ancient civilization. The discovery year and location are unknown as it is ancient to mankind. The name originates from the old English word seolfor (silver) and symbol from the Latin word argentums (silver) . Silver is widely used as jewelry, in photography and as an electrical conductor. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and Chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a by-product of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

Basic Information- Atomic Model of Silver

 Chemical Symbol: Ag

 Atomic Number: 47

 Atomic Weight/Mass: 107.8682 amu

 Standard State: Solid, at 298 Degrees Kelvin ( 77 degrees Fahrenheit )

 CAS ID: 7440-22-4

 Group Number: 11

 Class: Metal, Transition

 Melting Point of Silver: 961.93 °C

 Boiling Point of Silver: 2,212.0 °C

Atomic Structure of Silver

 Number of Protons & Electrons: 47

 Number of Neutrons: 61

 Crystal Structure of Silver: Cubic ( face-centered )

 Density @ 293 K: 10.5 g/cm3

 Atomization: 284.09 kJ mol-1

 Fusion: 11.3 kJ mol-1

 Vaporization: 257.7 kJ mol-1

 Molar volume: 10.335 cm3 mol-1

 Electrical resistivity: 1.59 ยต-ohms/cm

 Thermal conductivity: 429.0 W / m / K

 Mass magnetic susceptibility: -2.27e-9

 Number of Energy Levels/Valence Shells: 5

 Ground state electron configuration: 4d10 5s1

Silver Atom and its orbits

The silver atom has 5 electron orbits (energy levels) with a total of 47 electrons. Beginning with the orbit closest to the nucleus and working outward, the number of electrons per orbit should be: 2, 8, 18, 18, 1. Of course, the nucleus contains 47 protons and 61 neutrons.

Silver Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( Nuclide 107 ): Frequency: 4.046 MHz ( Ag+ )

Silver Incompatibilities:

Acetylene, Ammonia, Hydrogen Peroxide, Bromoazide, Chlorine Trifluoride, Ethyleneimine, Oxalic Acid, Tartaric Acid

Conclusion:


Silver has long been valued as a precious metal, and it is used to make ornaments, jewelry, high-value tableware, utensils (hence the term silverware), and currency coins. Today, silver metal is also used in electrical contacts and conductors, in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Its compounds are used in photographic film and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and micro biocides. While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics, further research into clinical potential continues.

****Now comes the Process for Making Atomic Model of Silver ******

1) Make the inner circle of by bending the wire (about 5 inches Diameter). Connect the wire ends together to complete the circle with small piece of wire. Best is to get a metal circle available in the market.

2) Count out 47 of the silver beads and set aside.
3) Next make the 5 outer circles or orbits as they are called. (Or you can buy an circled object as shown in the picture)

4) You will need one of each of the following diameters 6 inch, 7 inch, 8 inch, 9 inch, 10 inch. Don’t tape the ends together yet to complete the circles. Just bend them for now to make the basic circle size.
5) String 2 sliver beads on the 5 inch circle (First Energy Level) and tape ends together. String 8 sliver beads on the 6 inch circle (Second Energy Level) and tape ends together. String 18 sliver beads on the 7 inch circle (Third Energy level) and tape ends together. String 18 sliver beads on the 8 inch circle (Fourth Energy Level) and tape ends together. String 1 sliver bead on the 9 inch circle and tape ends together.

6) Doing one circle at a time, arrange the beads in pairs of 2 and spread out along the wire circles. Tie the beads in place so the sticks to the wire. Give one last check to make sure the beads and grouped and spread like the in picture

7) After the beads are stuck in place, you need to use some more wire to connect the orbital circles together if they are not already connected. Cut three straight wires slightly over 1 inch for each circle. Make sure the straight wires are the same size!

8) Starting with the center 5 inch inner circle, use a small strip of the silver or black duct tape to connect the 5 inch circle to the 6 inch circle using three straight pieces of wire (stagger them to make is stable).

9) Repeat the connecting process of the other rings.

10) After all the rings are attached. Use a sharpie or small bottle of model paint to mark a negative sign “-“ on each bead as in the picture. These 47 beads are negatively charged electrons!

11) Take the center of the circles with a circle object and insert 47 same color beads for Protons and 61 same color beads for Neutrons and connect it to the 5 orbits or to the stand of the atomic model.
12) Attach some strings for hanging and place the object on the stand as shown in the picture.






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